A process in which materials/products undergo a string of (laboratory) tests to verify that they fulfil certain requirements. Sound certification systems should be based on (ideally harmonised) European standards or technical specifications (e. g. by CEN, USDA, ASTM, etc. ) and be performed by independent third party laboratories. Successful certification guarantees high product safety also on this basis, interconnected labels can be awarded that help the consumer to make an informed decision.